Monday, September 19, 2011

Lung abscess

Lung abscess is a suppurative necrosis in the local area of ​​lung parenchyma, which causes the formation of large cavities. Nekrotikan Pneumonia is a term used when a small kavitasnya. Causing organisms can enter through aspiration of infected material, aspiration of gastric contents, bronchial obstruction, septic embolus and haematogenous spread of bacteria in pyogenic infections disseminated. Especially, the staphylococcal bacteremia and frequently cause the formation of multiple lung abscesses.
Anaerobic bacteria are found in almost all lung abscess, sometimes in significant amounts, and is the exclusive isolates in one-third to two-thirds of cases. Anaerobes are most often a commensal flora that normally exist in the mouth, especially Prevotella species, Fusobacterium, Bacteroides, Peptosterptococcus and microaerophilic streptococcus. Often there are mixed aerobic-anaerobic infections. For aerobic organisms, which often arises is S.aureus, Sterptococcus β-hemolytic, Nocardia and gram-negative organisms.
Many similar manifestations of lung abscess include a cough with bronchiectasis and is usually accompanied by conspicuous spending large amounts of sputum and smelling, purulent, or blood spotting, occasional hemoptysis. Patients often experience a high fever and malaise. Clubbing, weight loss, and anemia can also occur. Abscess infection occurs in 10-15% of patients with carcinoma bronkogenik so in aged patients suspected of pulmonary abscess, consideration should be the cause of carcinoma. Therapy includes administration of antibiotics and surgical drainage if required to do in patients lung abscess.

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Wednesday, September 14, 2011

The role of probiotic supplements on liver function

The benefits of probiotic supplements to the present never ceases to continue to study, from initial use to help the gastrointestinal health, now continually explored the benefits at the level of allergy cases, to lowering cholesterol and controlling body weight.

Even the recently revealed in a study that probiotics help various organs including the liver function. This is confirmed by the statement issued by Sandrine Claus from the Imperial College of London and has published research findings in the Journal of the American Society for Microbiology. In general, these mechanisms occur because of the microflora in the gut increases the rate of metabolism of its host's capacity to process nutrients and drugs as well as modulate the working of various organs through diverse pathways.

Claus uses mice in his research that has been believed to be germ-free and placed in the space previously used by other mice whose bodies are contaminated with microflora / good bacteria. Then, these mice were evaluated for 20 days along with the bacterial microflora colonizes the intestine to later be evaluated metabolic changes that occur.

The rats had increased weight by 4% in the first five days after exposure of the microflora. Colonization of these good bacteria also trigger some process in the liver that involves the conversion of glucose into glycogen and fat to be used as a short-term energy savings and long term. This colonization also strongly stimulates the expression and activity of enzymes called cytochrome P450 essential 3A11 which plays an important role in drug detoxification pathways.

This finding is the first in vivo eviden data showing the relationship between the presence of good bacteria in the metabolism of fat and a new outlook related to the role of probiotic supplementation in systemic physiological mechanisms of the body.

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